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Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Carl Jung on “Hell,” “Lucifer,” “Satan,” and the “Devil” - Anthology




Great is the power of the way. In it Heaven and Hell grow together, and in it the power of the Below and the power of the Above unite. ~Carl Jung, The Red Book, Page 308.

My I, you are a barbarian. I want to live with you; therefore I will carry you through an utterly medieval Hell, until you are capable of making living with you bearable. You should be the vessel and womb of life, therefore I shall purify you. The touchstone is being alone with oneself. This is the way. ~Carl Jung, The Red Book, Page 330.

No one knows what happened during the three days Christ was in Hell. I have experienced it. ~Carl Jung, The Red Book, Page 243.

But on the fourth night I cried, "To journey to Hell means to become Hell oneself. It is all frightfully muddled and interwoven. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 240.

After death on the cross Christ went into the underworld and became Hell. So he took on the form of the Antichrist, the dragon. The image of the Antichrist, which has come down to us from the ancients, announces the new God, whose coming the ancients had foreseen. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 242.

Therefore after his death Christ had to journey to Hell, otherwise the ascent to Heaven would have become impossible for him. Christ first had to become his Antichrist, his under worldly brother. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 244.

Read the unknown books of the ancients, and you will learn much from them. Notice that Christ did not remain in Hell, but rose to the heights in the beyond. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 244.

He who journeys to Hell also becomes Hell; therefore do not forget from whence you come. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 244.

Take pains to waken the dead. Dig deep mines and throw in sacrificial gifts, so that they reach the dead. Reflect in good heart upon evil, this is the way to the ascent. But before the ascent, everything is night and Hell. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 244.

What do you think of the essence of Hell? Hell is when the depths come to you with all that you no longer are or are not yet capable of. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 244.

The way to your beyond leads through Hell and in fact through your own wholly particular Hell, whose bottom consists of knee-deep rubble, whose air is the spent breath of millions, whose -fires are dwarflike passions, and whose devils are chimerical sign-boards. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 262.

When you step into your own Hell, never think that you come like one suffering in beauty; or as a proud pariah, but you come like a stupid and curious fool and gaze in wonder at the scraps that have fallen from your table. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 262.

I think of Christianity in the desert. Physically, those ancients went into the desert. Did they also enter into the desert of their own self? Or was their self not as barren and desolate as mine? There they wrestled with the devil. I wrestle with waiting. It seems to me not less since it is truly a hot hell ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Footnote 74, Page 236.

But the deepest Hell is when you realize that Hell is also no Hell, but a cheerful Heaven, not a Heaven in itself, but in this respect a Heaven, and in that respect a Hell. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 244.

I wait, secretly anxious. I see a tree arise from the sea. Its crown reaches to Heaven and its roots reach down into Hell. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 300.

There are hellish webs of words, only words, but what are words? Be tentative with words, value them well, take safe words, words without catches, do not spin them with one another so that no webs arise, for you are the first who is ensnared in them. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 300.

Just as Christ was crucified between the two thieves, our lowest lies on either side of our way. And just as one thief went to Hell and the other rose up to Heaven, the lowest in us will be sundered in two halves on the day of our judgment. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 300.

This is really Good Friday; upon which the Lord died and descended into Hell and completed the mysteries. This is the Good Friday when we complete the Christ in us and we descend to Hell ourselves. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 300.

Who among the living is Christ and journeys to Hell in living flesh? ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 300.

I have been baptized with impure water for rebirth. A flame from the fire of Hell awaited me above the baptismal basin. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 304.

I hold together what Christ has kept apart in himself and through his example in others, since the more the one half of my being strives toward the good, the more the other half journeys to Hell. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 315.

Christ himself compared himself to a serpent, and his hellish brother, the Antichrist, is the old dragon himself. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 318.

No one saves us from the evil of becoming, unless we choose to go through Hell. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 318.

The three days descent into Hell during death describes the sinking of the vanished value into the unconscious, where, by conquering the power of darkness, it establishes a new order, and then rises up to heaven again, that is, attains supreme clarity of consciousness. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Footnote 135, Page 243.

If you have become a sacrifice to the ideal, then the ideal cracks open, plays carnival with you, and goes to Hell on Ash Wednesday. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 276.

I hold together what Christ has kept apart in himself and through his example in others, since the more the one half of my being strives toward the good, the more the other half journeys to Hell. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 315.

Birth is difficult, but a thousand times more difficult is the hellish afterbirth. All the dragons and monstrous serpents of eternal emptiness follow behind the divine son. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 287.

If my God were not overpowering, neither would be my evil. But I want my God to be powerful and beyond all measure happy and lustrous. Only in this way do I love my God. And the luster of his beauty will also have me taste the very bottom of Hell. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 289.

My God rose in the Eastern sky; brighter than the heavenly host, and brought about a new day for all the peoples. This is why I want to go to Hell. Would a mother not want to give up her life for her child? How much easier would it be to give up my life if only my God could overcome the torment of the last hour of the night and victoriously break through the red mist of the morning? ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 289.

If you want to go to heaven, your feet will grow into hell. ~Carl Jung, Cornwall Seminar, Page 12.

When the fire has burnt all that should be burnt, the balanced people of common sense naturally settle down and control the fiery ones because they are a nuisance. Yet the fire remains alive in certain people, eg. Meister Eckhart whose teaching lay dormant for six hundred years. Around Eckhart grew up a group of Brethren of the Free Spirit who lived licentiously. The problem we face is: "Is analytical psychology in the same boat?" "Are the second generation like the Brethren of the Free Spirit?" If so, it is the open way to Hell, and analytical psychology has come too soon and it will have to wait for a century or two. ~Carl Jung, The Cornwall Seminar, Page 20.

The God-image in man was not destroyed by the Fall but was only damaged and corrupted (‘deformed’), and can be restored through God’s grace. The scope of the integration is suggested by the descent of Christ’s soul to hell, its work of redemption embracing even the dead. The psychological equivalent of this is the integration of the collective unconscious which forms an essential part of the individuation process. ~Carl Jung; Aion; Page 39; Para 72.

To be "normal" is the ideal aim for the unsuccessful, for all those who are still below the general level of adaptation. But for people of more than average ability, people who never found it difficult to gain successes and to accomplish their share of the world's work-for them the moral compulsion to be nothing but normal signifies the bed of Procrustes-deadly and insupportable boredom, a hell of sterility and hopelessness. ~Carl Jung; CW 16: The Practice of Psychotherapy; P. 161.

No tree, it is said, can grow to heaven unless its roots reach down to hell. ~Carl Jung, Aion, Page 43.

Only for outsiders, who have never been inside, is penal servitude not a hellish cruelty. I know many cases from my psychiatric experience where death would have been a mercy in comparison with life in a prison. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 446-448.

Yet real compulsion is one of the most hellish, devilish tortures, far worse than any organic disease. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 59-63.

But this does not prevent us from being continually licked round by the flames of hell. All of us have to atone, inwardly and outwardly, for this guilt of unconsciousness. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 341-342.

The eastern gods all have two aspects, Kwannon, the well-known goddess of kindness, is also the goddess of hell. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 13Jan1939, Page 57.

The individual must now consolidate himself by cutting himself off from God and becoming wholly himself Thereby and at the same time he also separates himself from society: Outwardly he plunges into solitude, but inwardly into Hell, distance from God" ~Carl Jung, CW 18, §1103.

The Bible says, "Whosoever shall say "Racha" to his brother is guilty of hellfire." If we substitute "shadow" for "brother" and implicate the dark brother within, we open out this biblical word into new perspectives. ~Carl Jung, Jung-Ostrowski, Page 25.

And who in Hell would have invented the Decalogue? That is not invented by Moses, but that is the eternal truth in man himself, because he checks himself. ~Carl Jung, Evans Conversations, Page 16.

Becoming conscious does not in itself lead to hell by any means. It leads to this unpleasant place only if you are conscious of certain things and not of others. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 30.

It is quite natural that if in your consciousness you are always running round in a circle you will finally end up in hell. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 30.

I live in my deepest hell, and from there I cannot fall any further. ~Carl Jung on how he could live with the knowledge he had recorded in the Book of Job, Jung: His Myth in Our Time, Page 174.

As I once dreamt, my will to live is a glowing daimon, who makes the consciousness of my mortality hellish difficult for me at times. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 119.

But if you are now in the dumps and up to your ears in the mire, you must tell yourself that you were obviously flying too high and that a dose of undiluted hellish blackness was indicated. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 298.

What I have heard from the theological side has readied me for a special compartment in hell. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 547-548

But at least he [Socrates] has shown us the one precious thing: "To hell with the Ego-world! Listen to the voice of your daimonion. It has a say now, not you." ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 531-533

If you leave all your energy and will in the superior function you slowly go to hell—it sucks you dry. ~Carl Jung, 1925 Seminar, Page 74

Love is a force of destiny whose power reaches from heaven to hell. ~Carl Jung, CW 10, Para 198.

The fact is that if one tries beyond one’s capacity to be perfect, the shadow descends into hell and becomes the devil. ~Carl Jung, Visions Seminar, Page 569.

Heaven and hell are the fates meted out to the soul and not to civilized man, who in his nakedness and timidity would have no idea of what to do with himself in a heavenly Jerusalem. ~Carl Jung, CW 9ii, Pages 26-27

Man has come to be man's worst enemy. It is a clash between man and God, in which man's Luciferan genius has produced in the H-bomb the power to destroy more effectively than any ancient god could. ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung Speaking, Page 248.

And now we are moving into Aquarius, of which the Sibylline Books say: Luciferi vires accendit Aquarius acres (Aquarius inflames the savage forces of Lucifer). ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 229-230

It is a clash between man and God, in which man's Luciferan genius has produced in the H-bomb the power to destroy more effectively than any ancient god could. ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters, Pages 244-251

Just as evening gives birth to morning, so from the darkness arises a new light, the stella matutina, which is at once the evening and the morning star— Lucifer, the light-bringer. ~Carl Jung, CW 13, Para 299

Satan unlike Christ, was created, not begotten. When I create I am free and not dependent. ~Carl Jung, Jung-Ostrowski, Page 48.

In order to reach man, God has to show himself in his true form, or man would be everlastingly praising his goodness and justice and so deny him admission. This can be effected only by Satan, a fact which should not be taken as a justification for Satanic actions, otherwise God would not be recognized for what he really is. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 32-35.

Our society cannot afford the luxury of cutting itself loose from the imitatio Christi, even if it should know that the conflict with the shadow, i.e., Christ versus Satan, is only the first step on the way to the far-away goal of the unity of the self in God. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 133-138

He is the pneumatic state the creator attains to through the phase of incarnation. He is the experience of every individual that has undergone the complete abolition of his ego through the absolute opposition expressed by the symbol Christ versus Satan. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 133-138

But let man, mindful of his hybris, be content with the lesser evil and beware of the Satanic temptation of the grand gesture, which is only intended for show and self-intoxication. C.G. Jung ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 11-12.

When Christ withstood Satan's temptation, that was the fatal moment when the shadow was cut off. Yet it had to be cut off in order to enable man to become morally conscious. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 163-174

You locked Satan in the abyss for a millennium, and when the millennium had passed, you laughed at him, since he had become a children’s fairy tale. But if the dreadful great one raises his head, the world winces. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 274.

A religious conversation is inevitable with the devil, since he demands it, if one does not want to surrender to him unconditionally. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 261

If ever you have the rare opportunity to speak with the devil, then do not forget to confront him in all seriousness. He is your devil after all. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 261

The devil as the adversary is your own other standpoint; he tempts you and sets a stone in your path where you least want it. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 261

Although the devil very much abhors religion for its particular solemnity and candor, it has become apparent, however, that it is precisely through religion that the devil can be brought to an understanding. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 261

The fact is that if one tries beyond one’s capacity to be perfect, the shadow descends into hell and becomes the devil. ~Carl Jung, Visions Seminar, Page 569.

Therefore we say that if you give the little finger to the devil, he takes the whole arm, and finally the whole body. ~Carl Jung, Visions Seminar, Pages 93-94

The devil is a preliminary stage of individuation, in the negative it has the same goal as the divine quaternity, namely, wholeness. ~Carl Jung, Children’s Dreams Seminar, Page 409

Indians have no thoughts that would prevent consciousness from functioning, no devils that could devastate consciousness. ~Carl Jung, Children’s Dreams, Page 409.

This disbelief in the devilishness of human nature goes hand in hand with the blank incomprehension of religion and its meaning. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 106

Only an infantile person can pretend that evil is not at work everywhere, and the more unconscious he is, the more the devil drives him. ~Carl Jung, CW ii, Para 255.

Nor should we omit to mention one final turn of the screw: like the devil who delights in disguising himself as an angel of light, the inferior function secretly and mischievously influences the superior function most of all, just as the latter represses the former most strongly. ~Carl Jung, CW 9i, Para 431.

It was from the spirit of alchemy that Goethe wrought the figure of the “superman” Faust, and this superman led Nietzsche’s Zarathustra to declare that God was dead and to proclaim the will to give birth to the superman, to “create a god for yourself out of your seven devils.” ~Carl Jung, CW 13, Para 163.

An ordinary man, not protected by an action from above, and isolated in society, cannot resist the power of evil, which is called very aptly the Devil. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 624-625.

But nobody has ever heard that the devil departed this life afterwards; on the contrary, the authentic New Testament view is that after the thousand year reign of Christ he shall be loosed again on earth in all his youthful freshness, in the form of Antichrist. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 253-254.

When you don’t acknowledge that you have such qualities [The Shadow], you are simply feeding the devils. ~Carl Jung, Dream Analysis, Page 53.

If you get rid of qualities[of the Shadow] you don’t like by denying them, you become more and more unaware of what you are, you declare yourself more and more non-existent, and your devils will grow fatter and fatter. ~Carl Jung, Dream Analysis, Page 53.

It is clear that the devil has been up to his tricks again. As soon as one notices that, one should say no more but withdraw into oneself. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. I, Pages 250-252

Two things are united in this symbol, the spiritual attitude of Christ and the devilish desire for power. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. I, Pages 267-269

Thus the encounter of Christ with the devil is a classic example of the transcendent function. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. I, Pages 267-269

“Omnis festinatio a parte diaboli est”,’ he quoted in Latin – ‘all haste comes from the devil’. It is an old alchemical saying. ~E.A. Bennet, Meetings with Jung, Page 297





Carl Jung on “Savior” “Salvation” – Anthology




Christ has made men desirous, for ever since they expect gifts from their saviors without any service in return. Giving is as childish as power. He who gives presumes himself powerful. The virtue of giving is the sky-blue mantle of the tyrant. You are wise, Oh Philemon, you do not give. You want your garden to bloom, and for everything to grow from within itself. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 316.

The archetypal image of the wise man, the savior or redeemer, lies buried and dormant in man's unconscious since the dawn of culture; it is awakened whenever the times are out of joint and a human society is committed to a serious error. ~Carl Jung; Modern Man in Search of a Soul.

[The trickster] is a forerunner of the savior . . . . He is both subhuman and superhuman, a bestial and divine being, whose chief and most alarming characteristic is his unconsciousness. ~Carl Jung; On the Psychology of the Trickster-Figure; CW 9i, par. 472.

To the psychologist it is a most noteworthy fact that the religious emphasis has shifted from the triune pater panton [Father of Everything] to the Son and Soter [Savior] and historical man, who was originally one third of the Godhead and is now the central and almost unique feature of the Protestant's religion. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 471-473

One of the greatest hindrances to understanding is the projection of the shaman—the savior. ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters, Pages 359-364

The tension between above and below in ancient Egypt is in my opinion the real source of the Near Eastern saviour figures, whose patriarch is Osiris. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. I, Pages 259-261

You barricade yourself from the world with exaggerated saviour fantasies. So climb down from the mountain of your humility and follow your nose. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Page 559.

It was Khunrath who said that Christ is the saviour of man, whereas the mysterious substance of alchemy is the saviour of the universe, not only of man but of nature. ~Carl Jung, ETH, Lecture XIV, Page 121.

Can you imagine a real prophet or saviour in our days of television and press reportage? He would perish by his own popularity within a few weeks. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 172.

And that's how it would be for you too with the Russians, for they also are universal saviours who want to cure the whole world with their own disease, just as the Nazis did. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 11.

A good example is Albert Schweitzer, who is urgently needed in Europe but prefers to be a touching saviour of savages and to hang his theology on the wall. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 83-86.

The tension between above and below in ancient Egypt is in my opinion the real source of the Near Eastern saviour figures, whose patriarch is Osiris. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. I, Pages 259-261

The mystical rose, like the lotus in India, grows for the salvation of man. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 3rd March 1939

The meaning of events is the way of salvation that you create. The meaning of events comes from the possibility of life in this world that you create. It is the mastery of this world and the assertion of your soul in this world. ~Carl Jung, The Red Book, Page 239.

To give birth to the ancient in a new time is creation. This is the creation of the new, and that redeems me. Salvation is the resolution of the task. The task is to give birth to the old in a new time. ~Carl Jung, The Red Book, Page 311.

May it suffice in terms of transgression that you do not imitate Christ, since thereby you take a step back from Christianity and a step beyond it. Christ brought salvation through adeptness, and ineptitude will save you. ~Carl Jung, The Red Book, Pages 297.

But if you know what the dead demand, temptation will become the wellspring of your best work, indeed of the work of salvation. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 278, Footnote 188.

The lamentations of the dead filled the air at the time, and their misery became so loud that even the living were saddened, and became tired and sick of life and yearned to die to this world already in their living bodies. And thus you too lead the dead to their completion with your work of salvation. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 278, Footnote 188.

Thus my God found salvation. He was saved precisely by what one would actually consider fatal, namely by declaring him a figment of the imagination. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 283.

But man must recognize his complicity in the act of evil. He must bear witness to this recognition by eating from the bloody sacrificial flesh. Through this act he testifies that he is a man, that he recognizes good as well as evil, and that he destroys the image of the God's formation through withdrawing his life force, with which he also dissociates himself from the God. This occurs for the salvation of the soul, which is the true mother of the divine child. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 291.

The Catholic Church is liberal enough to look upon the Osiris-Horus-Isis myth, or at any rate suitable portions of it, as a prefiguration of the Christian legend of salvation. ~Carl Jung, Psychology and Religion, Paragraph 178.

If left to himself, [man] can naturally bring about his own salvation. Who has produced Christ? Who has produced Buddha? ~Carl Jung; "C. G.Jung, Emma Jung and Toni Wolff: A Collection of Remembrances" edited by Feme Jensen.

Obeying the inner call of his vocation, Jesus voluntarily exposed himself to the assaults of the imperialistic madness that filled everyone, conqueror and conquered alike. In this way he recognized the nature of the objective psyche which had plunged the whole world into misery and had begotten a yearning for salvation that found expression even in the pagan poets. Far from suppressing or allowing himself to be suppressed by this psychic onslaught, he let it act on him consciously, and assimilated it.

If our religion is based on salvation, our chief emotions will be fear and trembling. If our religion is based on wonder, our chief emotion will be gratitude. ~Carl Jung

This centre was indirectly produced by an infernal deception through the figure of the Fuhrer. This happens in all societies where the spiritual centre has dropped out. Only in this spiritual centre is there any possibility of salvation. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 470-471.

Only in this spiritual centre is there any possibility of salvation. The concept of the centre was called by the Chinese Tao, which the Jesuits in their day translated as Deus. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 470-471.

There always are and there always will be the two standpoints, the standpoint of the social leader who, if he is an idealist at all, seeks salvation in a more or less complete suppression of the individual, and the leader of minds who seeks improvement in the individual only. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Page 174.

There is a real salvation in these medieval ideas which can free a man and give his existence a meaning far beyond the sacred bank balance and which reaches as far as suffering. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures, Page 191.

The fact of God’s “unconsciousness” throws a peculiar light on the doctrine of salvation. Man is not so much delivered from his sins, even if he is baptized in the prescribed manner and thus washed clean, as delivered from fear of the consequences of sin, that is, from the wrath of God. Consequently, the work of salvation is intended to save man from the fear of God. Answer to Job ~Carl Jung, CW 11, Para 659.

Salvation is the resolution of the task. ~Carl Jung, Liber Novus, Page 311

Consequently, the work of salvation is intended to save man from the fear of God. ~Carl Jung, CW 11, Para 659.

Alchemy represents the projection of a drama both cosmic and spiritual in laboratory terms. The opus magnum [the great work] had two aims: the rescue of the human soul and the salvation of the cosmos. ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung Speaking, Page 228

The mystical rose, like the lotus in India, grows for the salvation of man. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lecture 3rd March 1939

Carl Jung on “Causality” – Anthology




Without necessity there is neither causality nor finality, although there are not a few people nowadays who treat the concept of causality very incautiously. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 157-158.

The 4 aspects of causality make possible a homogeneous causal viewpoint but not a total one. For this purpose, it seems to me, causality (in all its aspects) has to be complemented by acausality. Not simply because freedom also is guaranteed in a law-bound world, but because freedom, i .e., acausality, does in fact exist. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 157-158.

Our psyche can function as though space did not exist. The psyche can thus be independent of space, of time, and of causality. This explains the possibility of magic. ~C. G. Jung, Emma Jung and Toni Wolff - A Collection of Remembrances; Pages 51-70.

The articles of faith of science are: space, time and causality. The fourth is missing and rejected: the pleroma. ~Carl Jung, Conversations with C.G. Jung, Page 59.

If we consider the psyche as a whole, we come to the conclusion that the unconscious psyche likewise exists in a space-time continuum, where time is no longer time and space no longer space. Accordingly, causality ceases too. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 546-548.

Religious experience is numinous, as Rudolf Otto calls it, and for me, as a psychologist, this experience differs from all others in the way it transcends the ordinary categories of time, space and causality. ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung Speaking, Page 230.

To understand the God-Creator as absolute potential is to recognize a power which is endowed with meaning in space and time and in causality. ~Carl Jung, Jung-Ostrowski, Page 41.

The four aspects, the quaternity of the Creator- God are space, time, causality and meaning. ~Carl Jung, Jung-Ostrowski, Page 42.

Just as a causality describes the sequence of events, so synchronicity to the Chinese mind, deals with the coincidence of events. ~Carl Jung, CW 11, Page 593.

If causality is axiomatic, i.e., absolute, there can be no freedom. But if it is only a statistical truth, as is in fact the case, then the possibility of freedom exists. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 102.

If space and time are psychically relative, then matter is too (telekinesis!) and then causality is only Statistically true, which means that there are plenty of acausal exceptions, q.e.d. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 126-127.

The latest developments of scientific thinking, especially in physics, but recently also in psychology, make it clear that "freedom" is a necessary correlate to the purely statistical nature of the concept of causality. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 182-183.

Freedom could be put in doubt only because of the one-sided and uncritical overvaluation of causality, which has been elevated into an axiom although-strictly speaking-it is nothing but a mode of thought. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 182-183.

An American pupil of mine, Dr. Progoff (New York), has tried to adapt and to explain synchronicity to the average reader but he landed his ship on the rocks because he could not free his mind from the deep-rooted belief in the Sanctissima Trinitas of the axiomata time, space, and causality. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 215-216.

Causality as a statistical truth presupposes the existence of acausality, otherwise it cannot be a statistical truth. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 317-319.

I have got stuck, on the one hand, in the acausality (or "synchronicity") of certain phenomena of unconscious provenance and, on the other hand, in the qualitative statements of numbers, for here I set foot on territories where I cannot advance without the help and understanding of the other disciplines. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 351-352.

The trouble with parapsychology is that the very framework of our understanding and explanation, namely time, space, and causality, becomes questionable. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 373-375

Everything that can be repeated experimentally is necessarily causal, for the whole concept of causality is based on this statistical result. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 420-421

How it comes about that space and time are reduced by these meaningful chance occurrences cannot be understood in terms of causality. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 420-421

Chance is an event, too, and if it didn't exist causality would be axiomatic. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 414-416

Leibniz as well as Schopenhauer had inklings of it [meaningful coincidences], but they gave a false answer because they started with an axiomatic causality. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 414-416

I deduce the fact that acausal phenomena must exist from the purely statistical nature of causality, since statistics are only possible anyway if there are also exceptions. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 425-426

On the other hand, it is obvious to me that synchronicity is the indispensable counterpart to causality and to that extent could be considered compensatory. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 425-426

It is unthinkable that a world could have existed before time and space, for whatever world we can imagine is always bound to time and space and hence to causality. The most we can imagine is that there are statistical exceptions to such a world. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 445-449

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 717

The average is a statistical truth, and this is a concept; but it implies that there must be exceptions, and there are exceptions to the general rule of space, time and causality. ~Carl Jung, Meetings with Jung, Page 101

There is no understanding of the fact that the mind itself has its causality; something from the inner life exerts its influence – ideas just arrive in the mind, or symptoms appear. ~Carl Jung, Meetings with Jung, Page 195

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. Anything psychic is Janus-faced it looks both backwards and forwards. Because it is evolving, it is also preparing the future. Were this not so, intentions, aims, plans, calculations, predictions, and premonitions would be psychological impossibilities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 718

Dreams contain images and thought associations which we do not create with conscious intent. They arise spontaneously without our assistance and are representatives of a psychic activity withdrawn from our arbitrary will. Therefore the dream is, properly speaking, a highly objective, natural product of the psyche, from which we might expect indications, or at least hints, about certain basic trends in the psychic process. Now, since the psychic process, like any other life-process, is not just a causal sequence, but is also a process with a teleological orientation, we might expect dreams to give us certain indicia about the objective causality as well as about the objective tendencies, because they are nothing less than self-portraits of the psychic life-process. ~Carl Jung, CW 7, Para 210

We distinctly resent the idea of invisible and arbitrary forces, for it is not so long ago that we made our escape from that frightening world of dreams and superstitions, and constructed for ourselves a picture of the cosmos worthy of our rational consciousness—that latest and greatest achievement of man. We are now surrounded by a world that is obedient to rational laws. It is true that we do not know the causes of everything, but in time they will be discovered, and these discoveries will accord with our reasoned expectations. There are, to be sure, also chance occurrences, but they are merely accidental, and we do not doubt that they have a causality of their own. Chance happenings are repellent to the mind that loves order. They disturb the regular, predictable course of events in the most absurd and irritating way. We resent them as much as we resent invisible, arbitrary forces, for they remind us too much of Satanic imps or of the caprice of a deus ex machina. They are the worst enemies of our careful calculations and a continual threat to all our undertakings. Being admittedly contrary to reason, they deserve all our abuse, and yet we should not fail to give them their due. ~Carl Jung, CW 10, Para 113

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 718

Now, since the psychic process, like any other life-process, is not just a causal sequence, but is also a process with a teleological orientation, we might expect dreams to give us certain indicia about the objective causality as well as about the objective tendencies, because they are nothing less than self-portraits of the psychic life-process. ~Carl Jung, CW 7, Para 210

“But since, according to our hypothesis, the unconscious possesses an aetiological significance, and since dreams are the direct expression of unconscious psychic activity, the attempt to analyse and interpret dreams is theoretically justified from a scientific standpoint. If successful, we may expect this attempt to give us scientific insight into the structure of psychic causality, quite apart from any therapeutic results that may be gained. The practitioner, however, tends to consider scientific discoveries as, at most, a gratifying by-product of his therapeutic work, so he is hardly likely to take the bare possibility of theoretical insight into the aetiological background as a sufficient reason for, much less an indication of, the practical use of dream-analysis. He may believe, of course, that the explanatory insight so gained is of therapeutic value, in which case he will elevate dream-analysis to a professional duty. It is well known that the Freudian school is of the firm opinion that very valuable therapeutic results are achieved by throwing light upon the unconscious causal factors- that is, by explaining them to the patient and thus making him fully conscious of the sources of his trouble. ~Carl Jung, CW 16, Para 295

Now, since the psychic process, like any other life-process, is not just a causal sequence, but is also a process with a teleological orientation, we might expect dreams to give us certain indicia about the objective causality as well as about the objective tendencies, because they are nothing less than self-portraits of the psychic life-process. ~Carl Jung, CW 7, Para 210




Wolfgang Pauli's critique of Dr. Jung's "Synchronicity."




Dear Professor Jung, [Zollikon Zurich) 24 November 1950

It was with great interest that I read the latest version of your work on "synchronicity."

We had basically agreed in the past on the possibility and usefulness and also, in view of the Rhine experiments, on the necessity of a further principle of interpretation of nature other than the causal principle.

After the turn taken in your Ch. II, "The Astrological Argument: it seems that our points of view have come one step closer.

1. In several discussions last autumn and winter (which also gave me the opportunity to observe a great interest in your concept of synchronicity in
places where I would not have expected it), ( repeatedly expressed my hope that such a turn would come about.

For example, ( I said to M. Fierz and C. A. Meier at the time, "It is really paradoxical that physicists are now obliged to tell psychologists that they must not eliminate the unconscious in their statistical investigations!"

And now the unconscious has returned in the form of the "lively interest of the test persons or the psychic state of the astrologer"; here your statement about "the pernicious influence of the statistical method on the determination of synchronicity in terms of figures" (p. 35) seems to be the most important result of your investigations.

This "pernicious influence” consists in the elimination of actual influence of the psychic state of the of the participants by means of the statistical formation of mean values, in that these values are measured without this
psychic state being taken into consideration.

It actually seems to me a general and essential attribute of synchronistic phenomena, one that I would even like to incorporate into the definition of the term "synchronicity"; in other words, whenever an application of statistical methods, without consideration of the psychic state of the people involved in the experiment, does not show such a "pernicious influence," then there is something very different from synchronicity going on.

I shall come back to this aspect later in connection with the discontinuities in microphysics.

The result you give of your investigation, according to which the continually renewed interest of your test persons is decisive, even makes astrology seem a secondary factor in this result and sets up favorable results for traditional astrology, in analogy to the "hits" in the Rhine experiment.

ust a quick question here: In the Rhine experiment, would it be possible to imagine test persons who produce a "negative" effect-i.e., who always come up with fewer hits than statistics would lead one to expect?

In your statistical experiment on the comparison between the horoscopes of married and single people, are there also test persons who, for example, find the sun-moon conjunctions predominantly with single people instead of married ones, precisely because their psychic state indicates a particular resistance to astrology?

When I say "predominantly," I mean more frequently than the chance statistics would lead one to expect?

I am reasonably certain that the astrological case and Rhine's ESP experiment will also behave analogously in this respect; but it might also be that the bringing in of the archetypes in both cases hinders the possibility of "negative" test persons.)

I have not examined the statistics in Tables I to V in detail, as this would take a lot of time and trouble, and anyway, unless I am mistaken, this whole material has been checked by Mr. M. Fierz, who has more experience in such matters. (Should I be wrong in assuming this, then I would strongly recommend you to call on him again.

His present address, probably until about the end of April 1951', is: The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J.)

At any rate, your result corresponds perfectly to my expectations.

A positive result, independent of the state of the astrologers, would contradict the well-known causality of the processes involved.

In truth, nature is so fashioned that-analogous to Bohr’s “Complementarity” in physics-any contradiction between causality and synchronicity can never be ascertained.

2. This now leads me to the question, the discussion of which forms the main part of this letter.

How do the facts that make up modern quantum physics relate to those other phenomena explained by you with the aid of the new principle of synchronicity?

First of all, what is certain is that both types of phenomenon go beyond the framework of “classical” determinism.

But this in itself does not answer the question, which is touched on in several places in Ch. I and IV of your work.

Naturally, this question is of particular interest to me as a physicist; I have been discussing it and thinking
about it at great length for a year.

What appears to me of fundamental importance is the requirement made of a law of nature in any experimental science--namely, that in principle at least it should relate to reproducible processes (also indicated by you
on p. 2).

In nuclear physics, it has turned out that the statistical character of these laws of nature is the price that has to be paid for fulfilling this requirement of reproducibility.

Now in physics, the essential aspect of uniqueness (for which there has never been a place in the physical laws of
nature) has manifested itself in an unexpected place.

This place is the observation itself, which is unique (or is an act of creation, if you will) because it is impossible to eliminate the influence of the observer by means of determinable corrections.

The type of statistical law that thus comes into being (one that is not reproducible by statements on individual cases), which acts as a mediator between the discontinuum of individual cases and the continuum that can only be realized (approximately) in a large-scale statistical framework, may be described as statistical correspondence."'

(The law of half-life periods in radioactive decay is a special case of this kind.)

At least the statistical regularities of the natural laws of microphysics are reproducible (independent of the psychic state of the observer), a case in point being the above-mentioned half-life periods.

There also seems to me here (cf. in this respect the criterion formulated above on the pernicious influence" of
statistical methods on synchronicity) such a fundamental difference between the acausal physical phenomena (such as radioactivity or any other discontinuity that comes under the "correspondence" of physics) and the
· synchronistic" phenomena in the narrowest sense of the term (such as ESP experiments of mantic methods) that I would like to propose that they be construed as phenomena or effects on different levels.

On these different levels there is a difference similar to that between a unique pair continuing series (although in the latter at least the statistical characteristics tics are reproducible).

Although in the second case, too, it is something that cannot be covered by the old deterministic form of natural law, I nevertheless, as a physicist, have the impression that the 'statistical correspondence" of quantum physics, seen from the point of view of synchronicity, is a very weak generalization of the old causality.

This also manifests itself in the fact that although microphysics allows for an acausal form of observation, it actually has no use for the concept of "meaning."

So I have grave misgivings about placing physical discontinuities and synchronicity on the same level, which is what you do on p. 58.

If you do not share my misgivings, I shall be most interested to hear what your arguments are.

To emphasize the difference between the case of microphysics and any cases involving the psyche, I proposed a quaternary schema in an unpublished essay on "background physics" written in 1941.

In the schema, the different pairs of opposites are intended to correspond to these two cases.

The pair of opposites for physics is:

Of course, I cannot claim that the whole quaternity that I proposed at that time is a genuinely suitable expression for "synchronicity."

But a further characteristic of this schema, which seems important to me, is that space and time are not placed opposite each other, which a modem physicist would find particularly unacceptable.

I admit that this placing of three-dimensional space opposite one-dimensional time seems more natural in the physics of Newton (which can be said to have begun with Kepler) than in modem relativity and quantum physics, and I am also aware that time and space are psychologically different in that the existence of a memory (recollection) distinguishes the past from the future, for which there is no analogy in space.

Yet the positioning of space and time opposite each other in your schema on p. 59 does not really seem acceptable to me.

For a start, they do not form a true pair of opposites (since space and time can easily be applies simultaneously to the phenomena), and second the reasons you yourself give on p. 17a for the basic identity of space and time are very sound ones.

That is why I would now like to make the following compromise proposal for a quaternary schema as a basis for discussion; it avoids the opposing of time and space and perhaps combines the advantages of yur schema and the one I drew up in 1948.

On p. 61, where you talk about the “triadic world picture,” perhaps one could replace “by means of space, time, and causality” (8th line from the bottom) by “and the notion of causality.”

That would also fit in better with the term “three-principles doctrine,” since continuity (natura non facit saltus) can certainly be viewed as a characteristic principle for the (classical) scientific age.

3. When you use physical terms in order to explain psychological terms or findings, I often have the impression that with you they are dreamlike images of the imagination; this impression is usually accompanied by the feeling that the sentences you write here stop at the very point where they should begin.

For example, on p. 9 it says: "The physical analogy for this (for a coincidence in time) "is radioactivity or the electro-magnetic field: And on p. 10 it says of the archetypes that: "They represent a field of force that can be compared with radioactivity: Such sentences cannot be understood by any physicist, since he would never compare a field of force (neither electromagnetic nor any other) with radioactivity.

The concept of the physical field of force is based originally on the illustrative idea of a state of tension of the "ether" penetrating space.

This state was used as the medium of "ponderomotoric” effects between bodies (e.g., electrical and magnetic ones).

Field theory has made itself independent (since Faraday) in that a real existence was attributed to the state of tension even when it is not made visible with specimen bodies.

Later, the concrete-mechanistic image of the state of tension and the medium of ether was abandoned in favor of the abstract view that the relevant physical described in mathematical terms simply by appropriate continuous _
functions of the space and time coordinates, dispensing with descriptive images.

It was then the task of "field physics' to establish the laws that fulfilled these functions, together with the specifications as to how these said functions, with the aid of test bodies, can-in theory at least-be measured. (I myself have a few ideas about the analogies of this physical field theory with the psychological notion of the unconscious and about the parallels in the temporal course of the development of these two concepts, but I do not want to prejudice your judgment.)

The essential thing about radioactivity is the transmutation of a chemical element that is connected with the emission of rays transporting energy (possibly of different sorts).

These rays are "active," i.e., they produce chemical and physical action when they encounter matter.

Such analogies as
{
Synchronistic coincidence or of archetypes Field of force or Radioactivity can be of great interest, but only on condition that the tertium comparatiionis is given (and possibly what the differences are).

My personal wish is not that you delete the sentences mentioned but rather that you extend and elucidate them.

4. As you yourself say, your work stands and falls with the Rhine experiments.

I, too, am of the view that the empirical results of these experiments are very well founded.

Given the importance of the ESP experiments for your synchronicity principle, I would appreciate it if you would make a point of explaining how, in your view, the so-called PK ("Psychokinesis) experiments
that you mentioned on p. 8 are to be interpreted.

Does the person expressing the wish concerning the results of the dicing have a prefigured image of the way the dice will go?

You mention in this connection a psychic "relativity of mass," but you do not go on to say what you mean by this nor how such an assumption can explain the PK experiments.

Here, too, I suspect that these are “dreamlike images of the imagination” of yours, and once again I would welcome further clarification.

There are other interesting details in your work that I would like to give more thought to (e.g., the connection between mantic methhods and the psychology of the number concept), but at the moment I have nothing new to report.

It’s about time I brought this long letter to a close.

I am hopeul that the questions that are still open to any differences still remaining in our points of view will be cleared up, given the basic agreement pointed out at the beginning of this letter.

With best wishes,

Yours,

W. Pauli ~Wolfgang Pauli, Atom and Archetype, Pages 53-59

Dear Professor Jung, Zollikon-Ziirich, 28 June 1949

Many thanks for your interesting manuscript and your friendly letter.

I should first of all like to point out that the Rhine series of experiments seem to me to be a totally different type of phenomenon from the other phenomena listed by you as "synchronistic."

For with the former I cannot see any archetypal basis (or am I wrong there?).

This for me, however, is crucial to an understanding of the phenomena in question, as is your earlier observation (Eranos Jahrbuch 1947 [1946]) that their appearance is complementary to the archetypal contents becoming conscious.

I regret very much that this aspect is not mentioned at all in your latest work.

Perhaps you could make further additions here, for it would make it all easier to understand.

In this way, the appearance of the synchronistic phenomenon actually seems to be connected to a definite state of consciousness (this term is deliberately rather vague).

Your proposed statistical experiment on the horoscopes of married and single people should be carried out on a broader scale and under very strict conditions.

Whatever the outcome I do not discount a negative ne(, it will add further to our knowledge.

Speaking for myself, I can relate much better to those situations where an external event conincides with a dream than to what emerges from a series of statistics.

Whereas I have some personal experience with the former, my intuition lets me down when it comes to the latter.

I have now given much thought to yoru report about the coninciding of the scarab in the dream with the real insect and have attempted to feel myself into the situation.

I shall return to this below, where it is more relevant.

At this point I shall deal with the questions broached at the end of your letter about the relationship between psychology and physics.

This gives me an opportunity to extend last year's essay on “background physics” by discussing the symbol "radioactivity; which at the time was no more than a key word.

This is also the best answer I can give to your question at the moment.

The idea of meaningful coincidence-i.e., simultaneous events not causally connected-was expressed very clearly by Schopenhauer [1785-1860j in his essay, "[Transzendente Spekulation] tiber die anscheinende Absicbtlichleit
im Schicksale des Einzelnen [On the Apparent Design in the Fate of the Individual]."

There he postulates an "ultimate union of necessity and chance: which appears to us as a "force: "which links together all things, even those that are causally unconnected, and does it in such a way that they come together just at the right moment."

He compares causal chains with the meridians, simultaneousness with parallel circles corresponding exactly
to your "equivalent cross-connections."

He sees, “albeit imperfectly from a distance” the compatibility of the opposition "between the apparent
chance element in all occurrences in the life of the individual and their moral necessity in the shaping of that life in accordance with a transcendental practicality for the individual-or, in popular language, between the
course of nature and providence.”

Perhaps some reference in your work to this essay of Schopenhauer's would be a good idea, all the more so as he, too, was influenced by the ideas of Eastern Asia that you quote so frequently.

Although Sch.'s essay is probably known to only a relatively small number of physicist, it is always pleasing in a fundamental issue to be able to make connections with what is already in existence.

This essay of Schopenhauer's had a lasting and fascinating effect on me and seemed to be pointing the way to a new trend in natural science.

But whereas Sch. wanted at all costs to cling to rigid determinism along the lines of the classical physics of his day, we have now acknowledged that in the nuclear world, physical events cannot be followed in causal chains through time and space.

Thus, the readiness to adopt the idea on which your work is based, that of the "meaning as an ordering factor” is probably considerably greater among physicists that it was in Schopenhauer's day.

Accordingly, I myself have no serious misgivings about such an idea.

It does seem to me, however, that in your interpretation the term "acausal" needs to be made more precise, and the special use of the concept of time needs further elaboration.

For the physicist, the words "causal" and "causality" have a much less specific meaning than the word "determinism."

And what is more, the word "acausal" means different things to different writers.

According to your interpretation of the "synchronistic" phenomenon (I refer particularly to pp. 20 and 21 of your essay), it occurs through duplication or multiplication of an abstract ordering factor, the external manifestation of which is in fact doubled or multiple.

In this sense, the ordering factor could also be described as the cause of the synchronistic phenomenon.

This cause, however, could not be conceived of in time and space.

Conversely, if only objects in lime and space can be described as causal, then synchronistic phenomena do in fact appear to be "acausal."

Just as in microphysics, the characteristic feature of the situation is the impossibility of simultaneously
applying the principle of causality and the classification of the phenomena in time and space.

What is much more difficult for me than the question of the definition of "acausal" is the entrance of the concept of time into the word "synchronistic."

Initially it refers expressly to phenomena that are supposed to be simultaneous in definitions in the usual physical sense.

Later, however (top 01 p. 21), you try to include phenomena such as predicting the future, which do not occur at the same time.

The word "synchron" thus seems to me somewhat illogical, unless you wish to relate it to a chronos that is essentially different from normal time.

This seems to me to be a difficulty that is not just one of formal logic but also a factual one.

For it is by no means easy to see why events that "express the presence of one and the same image or meaning” have to be simultaneous: The them time presents me with greater difficulties than the term meaning.

So what is the connection, the, between meaning and time?

By way of experiment, I shall construe your interpretation as follows: First of all, events in meaning can be perceived more easily when they are simultaneous.

But second, simultaneity is also the characteristic that determined the unity of conscious contents.

So inasmuch as “synchronistic” events form what you have termed a “psychoid” initial stage of consciousness, it is understandable if (not always, but in many cases) they also share this standard of characteristic of simultaneity.

This also suggests that the meaning-connection, a primary agent, produces times as the secondary one.

(I hope these vague formulations will become dearer in the course of our conversations.)

What seems satisfactory to me is that the ordering factor, "consisting of meaning." which contains time (the chronos) as a special case, as the masculine principle, stands in contrast to the feminine-indestructible one (causality in the narrowest sense, energy, collective psyche), as also seems to be the case in microphysics.

I now come to your questions concerning the possibility of linking together some of the physical facts mentioned by you with the synchronicity hypothesis.

The question is a very difficult one, as it seems to be connected with some of my personal experiences in "background physics” which mainly manifest themselves in dreams.

The energy quantum and the half-life radium decay seem to me much better suited to illustrate these connections
than the two other phenomena quoted by you, since they have an elemental and fundamental character.

Perhaps we can discuss this energy quantum again when we meet; at this point I would like to pick up on the physical phenomenon of radioactivity.

To make my views and my attitude to this question clearer, permit me to conduct a fictive thought experiment with you.

Please imagine that on the evening after the incident with the scarab that you have described, a stranger visits you and says something on the lines of: “Congratulations, doctor, on having finally succeeded in producing a radioactive substance. It will be most beneficial to the health of your patient."

Your assertion that there are no radioactive substances in your house and that the atmosphere is also free of radioactivity falls on deaf ears.

In fact, the stranger proceeds to explain in detail the half-life of the substance and the residual activity.

I have been playing this type of game for about 5 years now; it is played according to strictly defined rules and is so methodical that it cannot simply be dismissed as madness.

My initial attempts to throw the stranger out were soon abandoned, for although he is friendly by nature, the visitor can soon turn very unpleasant.

Judging from your question about radioactivity, I automatically assume that you are conspiring with the stranger.
expect me to agree with this conclusion.

As to what the stranger means, I can only deduce this indirectly from his reactions to my intellectual hypotheses; I am never completely sure about them.

Nor did he come to me on such easily perceived occasions as those I have created for my thought experiment with his remarks on radioactivity.

And before I could get down to finding out anything about "radioactivity" as he understood it, I had to have a rationally acceptable idea about who the stranger was.

The hypotheses that at the moment I just use for myself are the following:

1. "The stranger" is the archetypal background constellated by the system of scientific concepts of our time.

2. The expressions that emerge spontaneously from this background, such as "a radioactive substance has been produced" or "there is radioactivity; can be translated into the language of reason as follows: "a state of consciousness has been produced, or is simply present, which is accompanied by the multiple manifestation of the ordering factor in meaningfully related (usually simultaneous) events."

The language of the background is in the first instance a language of parable.

It seems to demand that reason, by dint of dedicated work, should translate it into a neutral language that adequately fulfills its requirements with regard to the distinction between "physical" and "psychic."

This neutral language does not yet exist, but one can attempt to make progress in the direction of its construction by means of careful analysis of analogies, such as the differences in what is indicated by the same words in the parable language.

With regard to the example in question-that of "radioactivity" –what strikes me first from the psychological angle is that a far-reaching parallel exists with what the alchemists referred to as the "production of the red
tincture."

Experience has shown me that what you call a "conjunction process” is generally conducive to the appearance of the "synchronistic" phenomenon(referred to as "radioactivity" by the "stranger").

And it is more likely to make its appearance when the pairs of opposites keep in balance a much as possible.

In the I Ching this moment is depicted by the sign "Chen" (shock, thunder) (Wilhelm Baynes, hexagram 51).

In the case of your scarab, I am fairly sure that it was one of those moments, since you say that it was preceded by a long, drawn-out course of treatment.

From all the material you have at your disposal, it must be easy to establish the conjunction process
and its situation when the synchronistic event occurred.

In this respect, I would be very interested to know in which month of the year it happened.

The equinoctial days are particularly suitable.

I would be prepared to bet 4:1 that it was in September or March and perhaps 1:1 that it was in the second
Half of the month.

(Perhaps those who believe in horoscopes will hit on the idea of setting up horoscopes for the moment when such events occur.

For according to your report, a spiritual birth has taken place, and there can be no essential difference between that and a physical birth.)

I regard it as evidence of progress in our knowledge when, in this connection, the alchemistic concept of the “red tincture” is replaced by the “radioactive substance.”

Between the phenomena compared there are the following illuminating analogies:

1. Just as in physics, a radioactive substance (through "active precipitation" from developing gas-like substances) radioactivity” contaminates" a whole laboratory, si the synchronistic phenomenon seems to have the tendency
to spread into the consciousness of several people.
3. The physical phenomenon of radioactivity consists in the transition of the atomic nucleus of the active substance from an unstable early state to its stable final state (in one or several steps), in the course of which the radioactivity finally stops, Similarly, the synchronistic phenomenon, on an archetypal foundation, accompanies the transition from an unstable state of consciousness into a new stable position, in balance with the unconscious, a position in which the synchronistic borderline phenomenon has vanished again.

3. Once again, the difficult thing here for me is the time concept. In physical terms, it is known that the actual amount of a radioactive substance (which can be measured by weighing it) can be used as a clock, or rather its
logarithm can: In a definite time interval (selected as sufficiently small), it is always the same fraction of the existing atoms that disintegrates, and two time intervals can conversely be defined as the same when the same fraction of the initially existing atoms disintegrate in them. But this is where the statistical character of the laws of nature comes into play:

There are always irregular fluctuations about this average result, and they are only relatively small when the selection of the existing active atoms is sufficiently large; the radioactive clock is a typical collective phenomenon.

A quantity of radioactive substance consisting of just a few atoms let's say 10) cannot be used as a clock,

The moments in time when the individual atoms disintegrate are in no way determined by the law. of nature, and in the modem view they actually do not exist independently of their being observed in appropriate experiments,

The observation (in this case: the energy level) of the individual atom releases it from the situation· (i.e., meaning.) connection with the other atom and links it instead (in meaning) with the observer and his time.

This leads to the following analogy with the synchronistic phenomenon on an archetypal basis: The case where it has not been determined whether the individual atom of a radioactive clock is in the initial or final stage of radioactive decay corresponds to the connection of the individual with the collective unconscious through an archetypal content of which he is unconscious.

The ascertaining of the state of consciousness of the individual, which emerges from this collective unconscious and which causes synchronistic phenomenon to vanish, corresponds to the determination of the energy level of the individual atom by means of a special experiment.

This is as far as I have got.

I very much look forward to talking over these questions with you, as well as other examples, and not just radioactivity.

I have spoken to C. A. Meier, and we have agreed that Thursday, 14luly, would be a good day for us both to visit you in Bollingen.

He will be in touch with you to see whether this day is convenient for you.

Please excuse my lack of brevity.

With best wishes,

Yours sincerely, W PAULI ~Wolfgang Pauli, Atom and Archetype, Pages 36-42